Development of the HTV-3X
Hypersonic Test Vehicle
  HFV-3X Wind Tunnel Model
HTV-3X Hypersonic Aircraft Wind Tunnel Model
HFV-3X Wire Frame
HTV-3X Hypersonic Aircraft AeroWindTunnel Wire Frame Design
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HTV-3X (Blackswift) DesignIntroducing the Hypersonic Test Vehicle project which is AeroRocket's version of the DARPA HTV-3X also known as the Blackswift  which represents AeroRocket's proposal for a hypersonic aircraft capable of flight to 300,000 feet and top speed from Mach 5 to Mach 10. A miniature subsonic wind tunnel model of the HTV-3X has been fabricated for experimental determination of drag coefficient (CD) using AeroRocket's 1 inch diameter supersonic blow-down wind tunnel. In addition, an AeroWindTunnel analysis has been performed that validates results from subsonic and supersonic wind tunnel tests. Please see the Wikipedia article about the HTV-3X that contains DARPA video and other interesting information about this proposed (now cancelled) space plane.

HTV-3X Design (581 KB Download, password required) - Upon request the HTV-3X Design and related files will be provided. This technical report is a WinZip file containing techniques used to fabricate the 9 inch long HTV-3X subsonic wind tunnel model, HTV-3X wind tunnel model templates, full size orthographic image of the HTV-3X, full scale HTV-3X dimensions and AeroWindTunnel screen shots showing CD verses Mach number for the HTV-3X.


RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HTV-3X
SUPERSONIC/HYPERSONIC FLIGHT VEHICLE CONCEPT
HTV-3X in the subsonic wind tunnel Supersonic Blow-Down wind tunnel system

SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL
The AeroRocket subsonic wind tunnel is a suction system powered by a two speed 1/3 horsepower fan. The test section is 7 inches wide x 10 inches high x 16 inches long. A research quality pitot tube measures the difference between static and dynamic pressure in the test section. The resulting differential determines flow velocity using an analog velocity meter. Small models that represent large designs are routinely tested in the AeroRocket wind tunnel.

SUPERSONIC BLOW-DOWN WIND TUNNEL (1" DIAMETER)
The new AeroRocket 1" diameter supersonic blow-down wind tunnel performs drag measurements up to Mach 3
. AeroRocket's expertise in the fabrication of miniature wind tunnel models makes possible the measurement of supersonic Cd for designs ranging from simple high power rockets to the complex HTV-3X. This new supersonic wind tunnel has already been used to determine drag coefficient of the HTV-3X. These measurements determined drag coefficient for the HTV-3X to be: Cd = 0.2435 at M = 1.6.

HTV-3X supersonic wind tunnel model
Miniature HTV-3X Supersonic Blow-Down Wind Tunnel Model

Close-up view of the SSWT
Close-up view of the new 1" diameter Supersonic Blow-Down Wind Tunnel

HTV-3X BLOW-DOWN WIND TUNNEL RESULTS
Cd, Blow-Down Wind Tunnel
Max. Frontal Reference Area
Cd, Ideal Wave Drag Equation
Max. Frontal Reference Area
Cdwave = 0.2435 @ M = 1.6 Cdwave = 0.2992 @ M = 1.6
HTV-3X MODEL (1" TUNNEL)
Length = 12.7 mm
Width = 6.35 mm
Thickness = 2.388 mm
Smax = 15.161 mm2
Pstatic = 0.106 atm
P0 = 2.241 atm
Blockage Factor = 2.992%
q = 1/2
g Pstatic Mn2 = 0.518 atm
FULL SIZE HTV-3X
Lb = 15.62 m
Smax = 7.153 m2
Swing = 52.628 m2
Ewd = 1.5

L
LE = 54.44 deg
Ainlet = 2.0 m2
Model in the SSWT
Testing The miniature HTV-3X in the new 1" Blow-Down Wind Tunnel at M = 1.6.
HTV-3X wave drag equation

The zero-lift drag coefficient (Cd) verses Mach number curve displayed below (blue line) was generated using AeroWindTunnel with Surface-Roughness equal to None. For this analysis the inlet area, Ainlet is included.

The classically generated Cd verses Mach number curve (red dots) was generated using the hypersonic wave drag equation (CDwave) added to base drag (Cdbase) then plotted verses the AeroWindTunnel results.

Cd 2-D AeroCFD RESULTS
0.418 Ainlet excluded. Cdbase and Cdfriction included.
0.301 Ainlet, Cdbase and Cdfriction included. See plot below.

The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) pressure-contour plot displayed to the right is the result of two separate two-dimensional AeroCFD analyses. The upper half of the two-dimensional analysis represents the upper-half of the HTV-3X airframe and the lower two-dimensional analysis in the plot represents the lower-half of the airframe to form the entire Mach 2.64 HTV-3X flow pattern.


AeroWindTunnel Cd verses M (blue line) compared to the Cd at M = 2.64
predicted by AeroCFD (red dot) where A
inlet Cdbase and Cdfriction are included.

VisualCFD upper and lower analysis
X-30 in free flight, back view X-30 in free flight, side view

TETHERED FLIGHT TESTING: A 22 inch long rocket powered version of the X-30 NASP is being used to demonstrate the pitch and yaw stability characteristics first predicted by AeroWindTunnel and then validated by subsonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. Due to the complexity of the HTV-3X the final design for this effort will be similar to the X-30 NASP. A catapult launcher is being designed that will demonstrate the free flight aerodynamics of the rocket powered X-30, pictured to the right, when launched at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees from the horizontal.

X-30 rocket powered vehicle
Catapult launched X-30 NASP

FREE FLIGHT TESTING: The time-lapse photograph on the left illustrates how the X-30 NASP was launched using a catapult Click to view QuickTime movie.to determine static and dynamic stability of the vehicle in free flight. The static and dynamic stability of the AeroWindTunnel designed X-30 NASP has been validated by this simple free flight experiment. The X-30 launch vehicle is now ready for actual rocket powered flight testing. In addition, by the completion of this series of tests the catapult system used in this experiment is now available for other interesting glider and airplane free flight validations.

X-30 launch QuickTime movie | Requires QuickTime from Apple


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